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Research Reports: Wilderness Education

These studies primarily look at various aspects of student outcomes and programming effects in wilderness education.

WILDERNESS EDUCATION

Collins, R., Sibthorp, J & Gookin, J. (accepted for publication). Developing ill-structured problem-solving skills through wilderness education. Journal of Experiential Education.

Jostad, J., Sibthorp, J., Pohja, M., & Gookin, J. (accepted for publication). The adolescent social group in outdoor adventure education: Making social connections that matter. Research in Outdoor Education.

Schumann, S & Sibthorp, J. (2016). Improving the accuracy of outdoor educators' teaching self-efficacy beliefs through metacognitive monitoring. Journal of Experiential Education, 39(2), 196-210.

Richmond, D., Sibthorp, J. Pohja, M., & Gookin, J. (2015). Social dynamics in outdoor adventure groups: Factors determining peer status.  Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership.

Goldenberg, M. & Soule, K. (2015). A four-year follow-up of means-ends outcomes from outdoor adventure programs. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 15:4, 284-295.

Gress, S. (2015). Diversity in the outdoors: Student attitudes about wilderness in the National Outdoor Leadership School. M.S. thesis. Oregon State University. 69 pp.

Jostad, J. (2015). A dynamical systems theory examination of social connections in outdoor recreation programs. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Utah. 115 pp.

Jostad, J., Sibthorp, J., Butner, J., Rochelle, S. & Gookin, J. (2015). Using dynamical systems theory in outdoor experiential education. Pp. 8-11 in Proceedings 2015 Symposium for Experiential Education Research, presented at the  43rd AEE Conference in Portland, OR, October 22-25, 2015. 57 pp.

Masters, M., Morgan, C., Ruden, T., Christensen, A., Gookin, J., & Rochelle, S. (2015). Energy balance: Assessing changes in body composition during a NOLS expedition. Pp. 50-53 in Proceedings 2015 Symposium for Experiential Education Research, presented at the 43rd AEE Conference in Portland, OR, October 22-15, 2015. 57 pp.

Sibthorp, J., Collins, R., Rathunde, K., Paisley, K., Schumann, S., Pohja, M., Gookin, J., & Baynes, S. (2015). Fostering experiential self-regulation in college age students through outdoor adventure education. Journal of Experiential Education, 38(1), 26-40.

Furman, N. & Sibthorp, J. (2014). The development of prosocial behavior in adolescents: A mixed methods study from NOLS. Journal of Experiential Education, 37(2), 160-175.

Huey, W.S., Smith, D.G., Thomas, J.J. & Carlson, C.R. (2014). The great outdoors: Comparing leader development programs at the US Naval Academy. Journal of Experiential Education, 37 (4), 367-381. 

Mirkin, B. (2014). Exploring complex relationships on extended wilderness courses. Research in Outdoor Education, 12, 58-79.

Paisley, K., Jostad, J., Sibthorp, J., Pohja, M., Gookin, J., & Rajagopal-Durbin, A. (2014). Considering students’ experiences in diverse groups: case studies from NOLS. Journal of Leisure Research, 46(3), 329-341.

Pohja, M., Ocobock, C, & Gookin, J. (2014). Energy expenditure in the backcountry. Research in Outdoor Education, 12, 99-115.

Redmon, K. (2014). Mind the (grade) gap: Investigating the correlation between gender and performance at NOLS. Poster presented at NOLS Faculty Summit, May 2014.

Schumann, S., & Sibthorp, J. (2014). The development and scaling of the Teaching Outdoor Education self-efficacy scale. Research in Outdoor Education 12, 80-98.

Sibthorp, J. & Jostad, J. (2014). The social system in outdoor adventure education programs: Present and future. Journal of Experiential Education State of Knowledge Issue, 37(1), 60-74.

Jostad, J., Paisley, K., Sibthorp, J., & Gookin, J. (2012). The multi-dimensionality of group cohesion: A temporal examination of NOLS courses. Presentation at the Association of Outdoor Recreation and Education Annual Research Symposium. Snowbird, UT.

Jostad, J., Sibthorp, J., & Paisley, K. (2013).  Understanding groups in outdoor adventure education through social network analysis.  Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, 17(1), 17-31.

Waage, T., Paisley, K., & Gookin, J. (2013). Understanding the contribution of wilderness-based experiences to the creation of an environmental ethic in youth. Research in Outdoor Education, 11, 18-27.

Collins, R.H., Paisley, K., Sibthorp, J., & Gookin, J. (2012). “Black and white thinkers” and “colorful problems:” Understanding student thinking in outdoor education. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 4(3), 185-198.

Collins, R., Sibthorp, J., & Gookin, J. (2012). The importance of program quality in youth development: Program quality indicators as predictors of outcome achievement among NOLS participants. Abstracts from the Coalition for Education in the Outdoors Research Symposium, 99-104. Martinsville, IN.

Collins, R., Sibthorp, J., Gookin, J., & Schumann, S. (2012). The role and importance of program quality in outdoor adventure programs for youth: Examining program quality indicators as predictors of outcome achievement among NOLS participants. Research in Outdoor Education, 11, 28-46.

Gookin, J., Sibthorp, J., & Paisley, K. (2012). Measurement of challenge (stress) type and intensity in wilderness education students. Abstracts from the Coalition for Education in the Outdoors Research Symposium, pp. 16-18. Martinsville, IN

Jostad, J., Paisley, K., & Gookin, J. (2012).  Wilderness-based semester learning: Understanding the NOLS experience. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 4(1), 16-26.

Schumann, S., Schimelpfenig, T., Sibthorp, J., & Collins, R. (2012). An examination of wilderness first aid knowledge, self-efficacy, and skill retention. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine Journal, 23, 281-287.

Sibthorp, J., Collins, R., Paisley, K., Rathunde, K., Schumann, S., Gookin, J., & Baynes, S. (2012). Developing lifelong learners: Enhancing dispositional enjoyment of learning through optimal engagement in adventure education programs. Abstracts from the Coalition for Education in the Outdoors Research Symposium, 13-16. Martinsville, IN.

Sibthorp, J., Furman, N., Paisley, K., Gookin, J. & Schumann, S. (2011). Mechanisms of learning transfer in adventure education: Qualitative results from the NOLS transfer survey. Journal of Experiential Education, 34(2), 109-118.

Rose, J., Paisley, K., Sibthorp, J., Furman, N. & Gookin, J. (2010). Adventure education learning mechanisms across populations: Qualitative results from the National Outdoor Leadership School. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education and Leadership, 2 (2), 68-72.

Shooter, W., Sibthorp, J. & Gookin, J. (2010). The importance of trust in outdoor education: Exploring the relation between trust in outdoor leaders and developmental outcomes. Research in Outdoor Education, 10, 48-56.

Schumann, S., Paisley, K., Sibthorp, J., and Gookin, J. (2009). Instructor influence on student learning at NOLS. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education and Leadership, 1 (1), 15-37. 

Gookin, J. (2008). Nurturing the heart and soul of education. Presented at On Sacred Ground: Faith and the Environment, Casper, WY, Sep. 2008 and Native Ways Of Knowing: Ethete, WY, Oct. 2008.

Hutson, G. & Bailey, L. (2008). Awakening place awareness during a 30-day wilderness leadership program. International Journal of Wilderness, 14(3), 23-28.

Paisley, K., Furman, N., Sibthorp, J. & Gookin, J. (2008). Student learning in outdoor education: A case study from the National Outdoor Leadership School. Student Learning In Outdoor Education.pdf

Paisley, K., Sibthorp, J., Furman, N., Schumann, S., Gookin, J., & McAvoy, L. (2008). Predictors of participant development through adventure education: Replication and extension of previous findings from NOLS. Research in Outdoor Education, 9, 60-74.

Pearson, M. 2008. Peer effects on non-cognitive ability. Unpublished manuscript.

Sibthorp, J., Furman, N., Paisley, K., & Gookin, J. (2008). Long-term impacts attributed to participation in wilderness education: Preliminary findings from NOLS. Research in Outdoor Education, 9, 86-103

Sibthorp, J., Paisley, K., Gookin, J., & Furman, N. (2008). The pedagogic value of student autonomy in adventure education. Journal of Experiential Education, 31(2), 136-151.

Goldenberg, M. & Pronsolino, D. (2007). A means-end investigation of outcomes associated with Outward Bound and NOLS programs. Journal of Experiential Education, 30(3), 271-276.

Sibthorp, J., Paisley, K., & Gookin, J. (2007). Exploring participant development through adventure-based programming: A model from the National Outdoor Leadership School. Leisure Sciences, 29, 1-18.    

Sibthorp, J., Paisley, K., Gookin, J., & Ward, P. (2007). Addressing response-shift bias: retrospective pretests in recreation research and evaluation. Journal of Leisure Research, 29(2), 295-315.

Wells, D. (2007). Organizational collaboration in outdoor adventure education. M.A. thesis, Prescott College. 153 pp.

Monz, C. 1999. NOLS research program 1999 annual report and completed papers. Unpublished report. 92 pp.

Kellert, S & Derr, V. (1998). A national study of outdoor wilderness experience. Unpublished report. 104 pp.

Propst, D.B. & Koesler, R.A. (1998). Bandura goes outdoors: Role of self efficacy in the outdoor leadership development process. Leisure Sciences, 20, 319-344.

Hammitt, J. P.  (1995). Responsible environmental behavior: Metaphoric transference of minimum-impact ideology. M.S. thesis, University of Montana. 148 pp.

Koesler, R.A. & Propst, D.B. (1994). Factors influencing leadership development in wilderness education. Unpublished report. 20 pp. 

Monz, C., Henderson, C., & Brame, R (1994). Perspectives on the integration of wilderness research, education and management. In 6th National Wilderness Conference Proceedings, The Spirit Lives, Santa Fe, NM.


Exploring complex relationships on extended wilderness courses (ROE 2014) 1887
Importance of trust in outdoor education (ROE 2010) 1776
Mechanisms of learning transfer in adventure education (JEE 2011) 1793
Developing lifelong learners (CEO Symposium 2012) 1808
The multi-dimensionality of group cohesion (AORE Symposium 2012) 1843
Measurement of challenge type and intensity in wilderness education students (CEO Symposium 2012) 1754
Black and white thinkers and colorful problems (JOREL 2012) 1891
The importance of program quality in youth development (ROE & CEO Symposium 2012) 1867
Wilderness-based experiences and creation of an environmental ethic (ROE 2013) 1817
Understanding groups in outdoor adventure education through social network analysis (AJOE 2013) 1705
Considering students’ experiences in diverse groups (JLR 2014) 1748
Social system in outdoor adventure education programs (JEE 2014) 1849
Development of prosocial behavior in adolescents (JEE 2014) 1828
An examination of wilderness first aid knowledge, self-efficacy and skill retention (WEMJ 2012) 1739
Wilderness-based semester learning (JOREL 2012) 1832
Effects of wilderness expedition experience on ill-structured problem-solving skills (2015) 2460
Fostering experiential self-regulation through outdoor adventure education (JEE 2015) 2798
Backcountry nutrition (ROE 2014) 3030
Peer effects on non-cognitive ability (2008) 2966
Nurturing the heart and soul of education: (secular) spirituality (2008) 3260
Instructor influence on student learning at NOLS (JOREL 2009) 3758
Awakening place awareness during a 30-day wilderness leadership program (IJW 2008) 3276
Stove Efficiency Experiment: VIDEO (2009) 5948
Responsible environmental behavior: Metaphoric transference of minimum-impact ideology (1995) 3586
Role of self-efficacy in the outdoor leadership development process (1998) 3457
The pedagogic value of student autonomy in adventure education (2008) 3430
Student learning in outdoor education (JEE 2008) 3926
Predictors of participant development through adventure education (ROE 2008) 3676
Long-term impacts attributed to participation in wilderness education (PowerPoint) 4353
Long-term impacts of wilderness education (ROE 2008) 7118
Perspectives on the integration of wilderness research, education and management (1994) 3591
Factors influencing leadership development in wilderness education (1994) 4061
A national study of outdoor wilderness experience (Kellert and Derr 1998) 5581
NOLS Research Program 1999 Annual Report and Completed Papers (1999) 3701
Organizational collaboration in outdoor adventure education (2007) 3643
Exploring participant development through adventure-based programming (Leisure Sciences 2007) 4149
Addressing response-shift bias: retrospective pretests in recreation research and eval (JLR 2007) 3893
A means-end investigation of outcomes associated with Outward Bound and NOLS programs (JEE 2007) 3730
  • About NOLS Research  ( 4 items )
    Learn more about the NOLS research mission as well as how to submit a research proposal and FAQ.

  • Research Reports: Recreational Ecology  ( 10 items )

    These studies look at impacts related to backcountry recreation and mitigation of those impacts.

    RECREATIONAL ECOLOGY PUBLICATIONS

    NOLS (2002). Campsite inventory and monitoring program for Prince William Sound: A procedural manual. Unpublished manual.

    Buckley, R. (2002). Breakdown of human waste in three sub-tropical Australian ecosystems. Unpublished manuscript.

    Cilimburg, A., Monz, C & Kehoe, S. (2000). Wildland recreation and human waste: A review of problems, practices and concerns (2000). Unpublished manuscript.

    Monz, C., Pokorny, T., Freilich, J., Kehoe, S. & Ayers-Baumeister, D. (2000). The consequences of trampling disturbance in two vegetation types in Wyoming. Unpublished manuscript.

    Monz, C., Roggenbuck, J., Cole, D., Brame, R. & Yoder, A. (2000). Wilderness party size regulations: Implications for management and a decisionmaking framework. Unpublished manuscript.

    Ells, M. (2000). The fate of feces and fecal microorganisms in human waste in alpine, temperate and arid environments and the impact of disposal methods on the surrounding environment. Unpublished manuscript.

    Monz, C. (2000). The response of arctic tundra plant communities to human trampling disturbance. Unpublished abstract.

    Monz, C., Cole, D., Johnson, L. & Spildie, D. (2000). Response of five native plant communities to trampling in the Wind River Range. Unpublished abstract

    Monz, C. (1998). Monitoring recreation resource impacts in two coastal areas of western North America. Unpublished manuscript.

    Twardock, P. & Monz, C. (1998). Kayak visitor use in western Prince William Sound, AK '87-'98. Unpublished manuscript.

    Hammitt, P., Freimund, W., Watson, A., Brod, R. & Monz, C. (1996). Responsible environmental behavior: Minimum-impact ideology. Unpublished manuscript.

  • Research Reports: Health and Risk  ( 19 items )

    These studies look at outdoor program incident, accident, and illness epidemiology, energy balance (expenditure and consumption), lightning risks, avalanche risks, and safety equipment for camping in bear country.

    HEALTH AND RISK PUBLICATIONS

    Ocobock, C. (accepted for publication). The Allocation and Interaction Model: A new model for predicting total energy expenditure of highly active humans in natural environments. American Journal of Human Biology.

    Totten, J.E., Brock, D.M., Schimelpfenig, T.D., Hopkin, J.L., & Colven, R.M. (2015). Prolonged exposure dermatitis: reporting high incidence of an undiagnosed facial dermatosis on a winter wilderness expedition. Wilderness& Environmental Medicine, 26, 525-530.

    Beasley, H., Ng, P., McIntosh, S.E., Wheeler, A. & Smith, W.R. (2015). The impact of freeze-thaw cycles on epinephrine. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, 26, 94–97.

    Gookin, J., Smith, T., & Williams, A. (2014). A device for refilling practice bear spray canisters. Human-Wildlife Interactions, 8(2), 279-283. 

    Gookin, J. (2013). Electric fences for short term food storage in grizzly bear habitat. Poster presented at the 22nd International Conference on Bear Research and Management (IBA), September 2013, Provo, UT. 

    Johnson, D.E., Schimelpfenig, T. Hubbell, F., Frizzell, L., Nicolazzo, P., McEvoy, D., Weil, C., Cull, A., & Kimmel, N. (2013). Minimum guidelines and scope of practice for Wilderness First Aid. Wilderness and Emergency Medicine, 24, 456-462.

    Hamonko, M.T., McIntosh, S.E., Schimelpfenig, T. & Leemon, D. (2011). Injuries related to hiking with a pack during National Outdoor Leadership School courses: A risk factor analysis. Wilderness and Emergency Medicine, 22, 2-6. 

    Holly, H., McIntosh, S., Schimelpfenig, T. & Leemon, D. (2011). Prevalence of high altitude illness on NOLS adventure courses. Proceedings from the Wilderness Medical Society Scientific Conference & Annual Meeting. Snowmass, CO. 

    Kroll, N., McIntosh, S., Schimelpfenig, T. & Leemon, D. (2011). Asthma in the wilderness. Proceedings from the Wilderness Medical Society Scientific Conference & Annual Meeting. Snowmass, CO. 

    McIntosh, S.E., Guercio, B., Tabin, G.C., Leemon, D. & Schimelpfenig, T. (2011). Ultraviolet keratitis among mountaineers and outdoor recreationalists. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 22, 144-147.  

    Ocobock, C., Gookin, J. & Baynes, S. (2011). Energy balance assessment of students on a NOLS course. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education and Leadership, 3(2): 105-107.

    McIntosh, S.E., Leemon, D., Visitacion, J., Schimelpfenig, T. & Fosnocht, D. (2007). Medical incidents and evacuations on wilderness expeditions. Wilderness and Environmental, 18, 298-304. 

    Karsky, D., Barber, K., Gookin, J., Kees, G., and Claar, J. (2007). Specifications for portable electric fence systems as alternative methods for food storage. Tech Tip 0723–2305P–MTDC. Missoula, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Missoula Technology and Development Center. 10 p.

    National Park Service. (2007). Portable electric bear fence brochure

    Leemon, D. & Schimelpfenig, T. (2003). Wilderness injury, illness and evacuation: National Outdoor Leadership School's incident profiles 1999-2002. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine, 14, 174-182. 

    Monz, C. & Schimelpfenig. T. (1997). An analysis of the medical review process at NOLS.Unpublished report. report. 9 pp.

    Gentile, D.A., Morris, J.A., Schimelpfenig, T., Bass, S.M., & Auerbach, P.S. (1992). Wilderness Injuries and Illnesses.  Annals of Emergency Medicine, 21(7), 110/853-118/861. 

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